Ativan is a brand name for lorazepam, which is a benzodiazepine used in the treatment of anxiety, seizures, and insomnia. It decreases excitatory signals in the brain for relaxation. Find help for Ativan dependence and getting information about the side effects of Ativan use here.
Avinza is a morphine sulfate extended-release capsule administered once a day. It is used to relieve moderate to severe chronic, long-term, noncancerous pain in adults requiring around-the-clock pain relief.
Buprenorphine is a partial opioid agonist used for withdrawal management and maintenance treatment for opioid dependence. This medication assisted treatment agent is available as a sublingual tablet or a long-acting implant (Probuphine). It is combined with naloxone in the combination opioid addiction treatment drug Suboxone.
Butalbital is a barbiturate in several analgesic combination drugs, along with aspirin or acetaminophen and, in some combos, with caffeine or codeine.
Butorphanol is a drug with both agonist and antagonist activity on mu opioid receptors and partial agonism on kappa opioid receptors. It is indicated for use for postoperative pain, obstetric/labor pain, and may be used as an abortive treatment for infrequent migraines in people who don’t respond to other treatments. It may be administered as an injectable solution or as a metered dose nasal spray.
Campral is a brand name for acamprosate, a medicine sometimes used in conjunction with behavioral therapy to help with abstinence maintenance in people recovering from alcohol use disorder and compulsive drinking.
Carisoprodol is a muscle relaxant commonly prescribed for acute muscle pain as a result of injuries such as strains or sprains. Carisoprodol is available in several formulations intended for oral administration.
Chlordiazepoxide is a long half-life benzodiazepine approved for use as an anxiolytic and to manage acute alcohol withdrawal. It is commonly referred to by one of its several, previously available trade names, Librium.
Clonazepam is a relatively long-acting benzodiazepine sedative used to help control seizures. It also can be prescribed to alleviate panic attacks. This drug works by enhancing the activity of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in the brain. Misuse of the drug is associated with dependence and addiction. Find out more about the harmful effects of Clonazepam addiction and how to help a Clonazepam addict here.
Clonidine is an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist drug used as an antihypertensive for the treatment of high blood pressure. It is also approved for use in ADHD treatment. It has several off-label uses including the management of menopausal hot flashes, dysmenorrhea, opioid withdrawal symptoms, and as a smoking cessation aid. Clonidine is available as both an immediate and extended release tablet, as well as a transdermal patch.
Cocaine is a Schedule II stimulant drug. It is associated with widespread illicit use and addiction and is responsible for a significant portion of emergency room visits. Three common routes of administration for cocaine are snorting, injecting, and smoking. Cocaine inhibits neuronal reuptake and thereby increases the activity of several catecholamine neurotransmitters, including dopamine, which underlies its exquisitely reinforcing, pleasurable effects.
Codeine is a prescription opioid analgesic and antitussive agent. This narcotic suppresses coughing and works as a relatively mild opioid painkiller. It is included in several orally administered pharmaceutical preparations.
Concerta is a branded version of methylphenidate. This medication is widely used for the treatment of ADHD but is also approved for use in treating narcolepsy. It is an amphetamine-like stimulant and is available as an extended release oral tablet.
Crack is a freebase form of cocaine. Smoking the rock-like substance elicits a rapid-onset, intense high and is considered an even more addictive form of an already-addictive substance. Crack cocaine’s effects include psychological effects like intense feelings of euphoria, increased energy, insomnia, paranoia, and more.
Crystal Meth is one of the street names for illicit methamphetamine. It is a powerful central nervous system stimulant with effects that can last from 6-12 hours depending on the method of use. Find out more about the harmful effects of Crystal Meth use and how to help a Crystal Meth addict here.
Darvocet is a combination of acetaminophen and propoxyphene. It is used to treat pain and to reduce fevers. In large doses it can be harmful or fatal. This drug was removed from the United States market in November 2010 by FDA request.
Darvon is a pharmaceutical-grade pain reliever that contains propoxyphene, caffeine, and aspirin. The FDA withdrew approval of this opioid in 2010 due to the dangers of propoxyphene, as it can have negative effects on the heart.
Demerol is a brand name for meperidine, an opioid painkiller commonly used in hospital settings. This medication is used for pain that is moderate to severe. Demerol may be administered via injection or as an oral tablet.
Depade is a brand name for the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone. Naltrexone is approved for use for treating both alcohol dependence and opioid dependence (post-detox).
Desoxyn is a brand name for methamphetamine hydrochloride. It is a stimulant drug that causes appetite suppression and is sometimes used to treat obesity in patients who have had unsuccessful outcomes with other treatments. Desoxyn is also used to treat ADHD.
Dexedrine is a branded, extended-release formulation of the drug dextroamphetamine, which produces feelings of wakefulness, focus, decreased fatigue, and decreased appetite. It is approved for the treatment of narcolepsy and ADHD (in a pediatric population).
Dextroamphetamine is a psychostimulant drug found in a number of pharmaceutical formulations such as Adderall (dextroamphetamine + amphetamine). Dextroamphetamine containing drugs are used to treat ADHD and narcolepsy and are more rarely used for the off-label indications of treatment-resistant depression and exogenous obesity.
Dextromethorphan (DXM) is a drug with antitussive properties and is commonly found in several cough and cold combination formulations. It is available in many over-the-counter cough syrups and tablets. It is sometimes misused at higher-than-recommended doses for its dissociative effects.
Di-Gesic is the trade name for the analgesic dextropropoxyphene. It is an opioid used to treat mild pain. The medication is no longer used in Europe and the United States because it was linked to arrhythmias and fatal overdoses.
Diazepam is used to treat muscle spasms, anxiety disorder, and seizures. It is also prescribed to minimize the risk of agitation and seizures in the setting of acute alcohol withdrawal. Diazepam may be administered in several forms including injectable solution, oral tablet, liquid concentrate, and PR gel.
Dilaudid is a brand name for the narcotic painkiller hydromorphone. Dilaudid is significantly more potent than morphine and is commonly used in hospital settings for the management of severe pain. Dilaudid may be administered as an injectable solution as well as an oral liquid or tablet.
Disulfiram is a medication used to decrease continued drinking and to help maintain abstinence in people with alcohol use disorder. It works to inhibit the function of aldehyde dehydrogenase (an enzyme controlling one of several metabolic steps in the breakdown of ethanol) and, by doing so, results in unpleasant effects when alcohol is consumed. These aversive effects include headache, flushing, and increased heart rate. It comes in tablet form and is taken by mouth.
Duragesic is an extended-release, transdermal formulation of fentanyl. These fentanyl patches are available in several dose strengths and are intended for use in managing chronic and severe pain that does not lessen considerably with other narcotics. Intentional misuse of these patched increases the risk of injury and overdose as well as the development of addiction.
opiate analgesic applied as a skin patch. It is a brand of fentanyl patches, which are used to treat chronic and severe pain that does not lessen considerably with other narcotics. The medication can be habit forming.
Duramorph is an injected form of morphine. It is a narcotic pain reliever typically given in a clinic or hospital to relieve relatively severe pain.
Ecstasy and MDMA
Ecstasy is the street name for the drug 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, or MDMA. MDMA is a synthetic psychoactive drug that induces feelings of euphoria, increased energy, and emotional warmth in the user. It is commonly consumed orally in capsule or pill form.
Fentanyl is a potent opioid pain medication used to treat severe or breakthrough pain. Pharmaceutical fentanyl is roughly 50 times more potent than heroin. It is often used in operating rooms, in intensive care units, and for treatment of cancer pain. Illicit fentanyl production and abuse have been on the rise in recent years. Fentanyl may significantly increase overdose risks, especially when surreptitiously mixed with street heroin and other drugs.
Fioricet is an analgesic combination of three active ingredients: caffeine, acetaminophen, and butalbital. It is prescribed for tension headaches. The butalbital component is a barbiturate—a class of drugs known for their abuse potential.
Fiorinal is a medication that contains aspirin, caffeine, and butalbital. Butalbital is a barbiturate. Fiorinal is most commonly used to treat tension headaches and is sometimes used to treat migraines. Butalbital is habit-forming and can lead to dependency.
In the U.S., flunitrazepam is an illicit sedative drug most commonly known as Rohypnol, roofies, or the date rape drug.
In pharmaceutical form, GHB—which is short for gamma hydroxybutyrate—is approved for use in treating narcolepsy-related cataplexy or excessive daytime sleepiness. Illicit forms of the drug may be found as an odorless powder or liquid. Though its mechanism of action isn’t fully understood, the drug acts as a CNS depressant and can result in profoundly intoxicated states when misused.
Halcion is a brand name for triazolam, which is a benzodiazepine. This medication is approved for use as a short-term treatment for insomnia, though its use in this capacity has been somewhat supplanted by non-benzodiazepine hypnotic drugs such as Ambien.
Hashish, often referred to as hash, is a product of the cannabis plant. Prepared from compressed marijuana buds and cannabis resin, hash is commonly burned and inhaled. Levels of THC may be several times higher than those of unprocessed marijuana buds, resulting in more potent psychoactive effects when smoked.
Heroin is an illicit drug known to induce feelings of intense relaxation and euphoria. It is an opioid derived from morphine, which is itself extracted from the opium poppy. Heroin can be injected, smoked, snorted, or taken orally. Find out more about help for heroin dependence and getting information about the side effects of heroin here.
Hycodan was a previously available brand name version of hydrocodone bibartate that is mixed with homatropine methylbromide. This drug is an opioid analgesic and antitussive that reduces coughing. Too much Hycodan can cause breathing difficulties.
Hydrocodone is a widely prescribed (and widely abused) opioid analgesic. It is commonly encountered in combination formulations with non-opioid analgesics such as acetaminophen. In its various forms, it is used to control pain and, less frequently, as a cough suppressant. It is available as a tablet and solution, both intended for oral use.
Hydromorphone is a semisynthetic, morphine-derived opioid. Available as an oral tablet (in immediate and extended-release formulations) as well as an injectable solution, hydromorphone is used for severe pain. It is commonly identified in branded form as Dilaudid.
The term “inhalants” is used to designate a variety of chemical compounds that are inhaled through the mouth or nose as a vapor or gas. It is a somewhat broad grouping of substances and includes several volatile solvents, gases, aerosol sprays, and nitrites. The effects of different inhalants include alcohol-like intoxication, sedation, and mild euphoria. Though toxicity varies by substance, chronic use of certain inhalants can be dangerous and debilitating. Find out more about the harmful effects of inhalant use and how to help an inhalant abuser here.
Kadian is a brand name for the generic drug morphine sulfate. It is an extended release capsule intended for oral administration and is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Kadian is a narcotic pain reliever and an opioid and misuse increases the risk of physiological dependence and addiction.
Ketamine was once widely used as a surgical/procedural sedative because, in contrast with PCP, it was associated with a much shorter and less frightening emergence delirium. Both drugs are similarly acting dissociative-anesthetic agents and in sufficient doses may cause people to dissociate from their surrounding and, even, their own bodies. In pharmaceutical form, ketamine remains a Schedule III drug with known medical utility. It is, however, frequently misused illicitly.
Klonopin is a branded formulation of clonazepam and is used to manage panic disorder and certain types of seizures. As with other benzodiazepine drugs, Klonopin works by decreasing excitatory signaling in the brain. Misuse of this drug can be dangerous and is associated with the development of significant physical dependence and addiction. Find help for Klonopin addiction and get information about the side effects of Klonopin use here.
LSD is the abbreviation for lysergic acid diethylamide. LSD, or acid as it is usually called, is a drug taken in relatively minuscule doses but still capable of eliciting several profound psychological effects including hallucinations. Though not associated with pronounced dependence in the same way that many other illicit abused substances are, its use can still be dangerous. It is most commonly taken orally, via tings like sugar cubes or blotter paper impregnated with an aqueous solution of the drug.
Librium is a brand name for chlordiazepoxide, an anxiolytic medication commonly used to manage acute alcohol withdrawal. It reduces anxiety and agitation by depressing the central nervous system. Librium is classified as a benzodiazepine and, like other drugs in this class, has abuse potential.
Lorazepam is an antianxiety medication that works by increasing the actions of a neurotransmitter known as GABA. Also available as the brand name Ativan, lorazepam may be used to treat anxiety and seizures and is also indicated for use in certain instances for insomnia. It is sometimes used off-label to manage acute alcohol withdrawal and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. As with other benzodiazepine drugs, severe dependence may develop in association with chronic use and misuse of lorazepam. Find out more about the harmful effects of lorazepam use and how to help a lorazepam addict here.
Lortab is a brand name combination product that contains the drugs hydrocodone and acetaminophen. It is commonly given to patients to relieve moderate to severe pain. Common side effects include an upset stomach, nausea, and dizziness.
Luminal is a brand name for the drug phenobarbital. This drug has sedative and hypnotic effects, but it is most commonly used as an anticonvulsant to treat seizures.
MS Contin is one of several branded formulations of morphine for oral use. It is available as an extended release tablet and used to control moderate to severe pain.
MSIR is in immediate release formulation of morphine sulfate. MSIR is intended for oral use.
Marijuana, also called cannabis, is a psychoactive plant that is most commonly smoked, though chemical compounds in the plant may be incorporated into products that are consumed orally. The primary psychoactive compound in marijuana is tetrahydrocannabinol. In many states, marijuana has been legalized for some medical use, though it remains a Schedule I drug nationally.
Meperidine is a synthetic narcotic pain reliever with analgesic potency similar to that of morphine. This medication was once widely used in hospital settings to treat pain that is considered moderate to severe, though its popularity as a painkiller has declined somewhat for its associated seizure risks and pronounced abuse potential. It is available as an oral tablet and injectable solution under the trade name Demerol.
Mescaline, or 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine, is a naturally occurring psychedelic drug found in the peyote cactus. Mescaline use is associated with long, dream-like hallucinatory experiences and altered mood states. As with other classic hallucinogens like LSD, tolerance is built rapidly with repeated use. Though used in some religious ceremonies, mescaline remains a Schedule I substance in the United States.
Methadone is a narcotic analgesic that also used to treat opioid dependence. As an opioid receptor agonist medication, methadone helps stabilize people in acute opioid withdrawal as well as maintain them throughout longer-term recovery. As a full opioid receptor agonist drug, methadone has significant abuse potential of its own; and as a long-acting opioid, methadone can become quite dangerous when misused. Find out more about the potentially harmful effects of methadone use and how to help a methadone addict here.
Methamphetamine is a highly addictive stimulant with a history of widespread abuse. Pharmaceutical methamphetamine continues to be prescribed, though less commonly than some other psychostimulant drugs such as Adderall and Ritalin, for treatment of ADHD. Illicit forms of this powerful CNS stimulant are also referred to as speed, ice, crank, meth, and crystal.
Methaqualone is the active component of the now-discontinued sedative pharmaceutical brand Quaalude. Quaaludes were initially marketed as a non-habit-forming substitute for barbiturates and, though it has somewhat different chemical properties, their use ultimately led to high rates of abuse. This sedative-hypnotic drug was highly sought after for its ability to induce sleep and elicit euphoric feelings in higher doses.
Methylphenidate—most recognizably marketed as Ritalin—is a medication used to help manage ADHD and narcolepsy. It is a psychostimulant with reinforcing properties, especially when misused.
Morphine is an opioid analgesic—often considered the archetypal painkiller. Morphine is an opiate alkaloid derived from opium poppies and has long been used to relieve pain. It is a widely used in hospitals and other clinical settings but also has the potential to be misused to elicit euphoric feelings, among other effects.
Mushrooms, often called Magic Mushrooms, contain psilocybin as their primary psychoactive compound. When consumed whole or brewed into tea, these hallucinogens can distort the senses, which can be pleasurable or terrifying depending on the situation.
Naltrexone is an opioid receptor antagonist used as part of a medication-assisted treatment regimen for alcohol or opioid dependence. Naltrexone is available as an oral tablet, in its branded formulation Vivitrol, as in an extended-release injectable solution.
Nembutal is a brand name for pentobarbital sodium, which is a barbiturate drug. This medication is indicated for use in managing insomnia but can also be used as a sedative before surgery. Though oral forms of Nembutal were once on the market, it is currently available only as an injectable solution.
Norco is a prescription painkiller that contains both hydrocodone (an opioid analgesic) and acetaminophen (the active ingredient in Tylenol). This medication is used to treat moderate to severe pain.
OxyContin is a branded formulation of oxycodone, a narcotic analgesic. Side effects include fatigue, dizziness, and fainting. It is available as an extended-release tablet, which is the target of much diversion and abuse. Find help for OxyContin abuse and get information about the side effects of OxyContin use here.
Oxycodone is an opioid pain medication with a history of widespread diversion and misuse. Oxycodone overdose can be fatal. Oxycodone overdose is made more likely when people attempt to bypass extended release mechanisms of certain formulations. Find out more about the harmful effects of Oxycodone use and how to help an Oxycodone addict here.
PCP, or phencyclidine, is a dissociative anesthetic drug similar to ketamine. Unlike ketamine, no pharmaceutical preparation of PCP exists anymore—all PCP use is illicit. PCP can be smoked, snorted, injected, or taken orally. Find help for PCP abuse and getting information about the side effects of PCP use is essential here.
Palladone was a previously-available, extended-release, oral capsule form of hydromorphone, an opioid painkiller.
Pentobarbital is a type of barbiturate that works to increase inhibitory tone in the central nervous system. Though rarely used, it is indicated for use as a hypnotic (i.e., sleeping aid) and for sedation before surgery.
Percocet is a prescription painkiller combination of acetaminophen and oxycodone. This drug is used to manage moderate to severe pain and is a Schedule II controlled substance.
Peyote is a small spineless cactus with psychoactive properties when consumed. The primary hallucinogenic compound in peyote is mescaline, a phenethylamine hallucinogen that may elicit effects that vary somewhat from person to person. Indigenous Americans often used peyote for rituals.
Phenobarbital (trade name: Luminal) is a barbiturate. It is commonly used as an anticonvulsant to treat patients with seizures. It can also be used to treat those experiencing acute withdrawal from alcohol or benzodiazepines, may result in severe tremors and seizures.
Quaalude was a previously available brand name for the sedative-hypnotic drug methaqualone. It was once prescribed for insomnia and as a muscle relaxant. It gained popularity in the 1960s and 1970s as a recreational drug. It is currently a Schedule I drug in the United States. Pharmaceutical production ceased in the U.S. in the 1980s.
Ritalin is one of the trade names for the stimulant methylphenidate. It is commonly used for the treatment of ADHD and the sleep disorder narcolepsy. Ritalin is intended for oral use and is available as an immediate release tablet and extended-release capsule (Ritalin LA).
Rohypnol is another name for the benzodiazepine drug flunitrazepam. As with other benzos, Rohypnol use may result in sedation and memory loss. Illicit use of this drug has been linked to sexual assaults, earning it a designation as a “date rape” drug. Flunitrazepam has never been approved for medical use in the U.S.
Roxicodone is one brand name version of oxycodone, an opioid painkiller used to treat patients who suffer from moderate to severe pain.
Ryzolt is a previously available brand formulation of tramadol, which is a prescription opioid analgesic. Ryzolt was an extended-release oral tablet.
Secobarbital is a barbiturate that inhibits certain types of brain activity. Though increasingly rarely used, it is indicated for use are as a pre-surgery sedative and as a short-term insomnia treatment.
Seconal is a brand name for secobarbital—a prescription barbiturate. It is approved for use as a procedural sedative and sleep aid, though it is rarely used for either. Seconal is available as an oral capsule.
Soma is a brand name for the drug carisoprodol, which is a muscle relaxant. It is used as treatment for acute musculoskeletal pain. One metabolite of the drug, meprobamate, is a sedative-anxiolytic which has historically been associated with cases of abuse and dependence.
Speed is a slang term applied to illicit amphetamine and methamphetamine drug use. These drugs are central nervous system stimulants, and their misuse can result in a short-lived euphoric feeling as well as several potentially dangerous physiological effects such as increased heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing.
Androgenic/anabolic steroids are a class of drugs used medically for conditions such as hypogonadism and to stimulate appetite following trauma, extensive surgery, or chronic illness. Though not reinforcing in the same way that many other drugs of abuse are, steroids are associated with compulsive patterns of use in certain populations. Find out more about the harmful effects of steroid use and how to help a steroid addict here.
Sublimaze is an injectable version of fentanyl—a potent narcotic analgesic. It is commonly used in or after an operative setting, such as during anesthesia or in the recovery room.
Suboxone is an FDA-approved combination drug used as stabilization and maintenance therapy for opioid use disorders. It contains the partial opioid receptor agonist buprenorphine and the opioid antagonist naloxone. Suboxone is administered as a dissolvable film placed in the cheek or under the tongue.
Subutex is a brand name sublingual tablet version of buprenorphine used to treat opioid dependence. Buprenorphine is a partial opioid agonist drug and, though intended for use as a treatment for opioid use disorder, is sometimes diverted and abused. Compulsive misuse of buprenorphine can be dangerous, so getting help for Subutex addiction is vital.
Tramadol is a prescription painkiller somewhat unique amongst other opioid agonist drugs due to its serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibiting properties. Its primary use is pain relief and it is administered in tablet form. Due to its atypical neurochemical effects, after consistent use, abrupt tramadol discontinuation is associated with a somewhat different side effect profile than many other opioid drugs.
Triazolam is a short-acting benzodiazepine marketed for the treatment of insomnia. Its use for this purpose has largely been supplanted by other, non-benzodiazepine sedative-hypnotic sleep aids.
Tussionex is a prescription medication that contains a combination of hydrocodone and chlorpheniramine. The hydrocodone suppresses coughing while the other active ingredient is an antihistamine. It is used to relieve symptoms of colds and the flu.
Ultram is one of several brand formulations of tramadol, an atypical opioid analgesic. Tramadol is indicated for use for moderate to severe pain and, in extended release form, for chronic pain chronic pain. Ultram is available in tablet form.
Valium is the trade name for diazepam. In use for more than 50 years, Valium is the archetypal benzodiazepine drug and is used to treat anxiety, seizures, and muscle spasms. It is also used for procedural sedation and to manage acute alcohol withdrawal.
Vicodin is a branded formulation of acetaminophen and hydrocodone, the latter an opioid analgesic. This combination painkiller is available as an oral tablet and historically has been prescribed in 5mg, 7.5mg, and 10mg (hydrocodone) doses. Though intended for prescription use, Vicodin, like many prescription opioids, is a commonly diverted and misused drug. Find out more about the harmful effects of Vicodin use and how to help a Vicodin addict here.
Vivitrol is branded formulation of naltrexone—an opioid receptor antagonist used in the treatment of opioid and alcohol use disorders. It is available as an extended-release injectable suspension which is re-administered every 4 weeks. As part of a medication assisted treatment regimen, Vivitrol is prescribed in conjunction with behavioral health interventions for patients recovering from drug or alcohol addiction.
Xanax is the name brand of the generic drug alprazolam, which is a benzodiazepine. It is available as an immediate release and extended release (Xanax XR) tablet, which are prescribed for the short-term management of anxiety and panic disorder.
Xodol is a prescription painkiller formulated with a combination of an opioid (hydrocodone) and the analgesic/antipyretic acetaminophen. Xodol is indicated for use for moderate pain.
Zolpidem is a sedative-hypnotic medication used in the treatment of insomnia. The drug is available in several formulations including both immediate and extended-release tablets, sublingual dissolvable tabs, and a metered oral spray.
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